Ancient roulette: theories of emergence
The history of emergence of the roulette which is today an integral part of gambling entertainments in serious casinos, is contradictory. The discussions about peculiarities and moreover about time of roulette emergence are conducted even today. According to different sources the age of this classical gambling game is few centuries or millennia. Among most popular versions are the following ones:
emergence of a game in ancient Rome, Ancient Greece and North America. The theory of an origin of game in these countries is based on stories about usage of certain round devices for fortune-telling. Residents of Rome used a round disk to cast lots. Greeks, in order to "get predictions" used shield on the point of sword. Indians drew a circle on ground and used top with an arrow.
in Ancient China. It is widely thought that for around one thousand years Tibetan monks have played game with the help of round game field. It was divided into the squares and there were used figures of animals. There is a similar version which says that roulette was created by monks of Dominican order.
The more modern theories contain references to concrete games:
"Hoka" is a popular French entertainment among first casino games of 17th century. In the centre of round roulette table with four dozen of enumerated holes there was spinning wheel with spokes. Before the start a small ball was put between them. It landed into the hole in a random way during spins.
"Boule" (even/odd) – the French game which is similar to "hoka". Pockets were in two colours and motionless bowl was used instead of the wheel. The ball landed on specific numbers. Even numbers were winning, and odd ones - losing.
The Classical European roulette – official version of its invention
The official version is unambiguous – the roulette was created by Blaise Pascal. Scientist and mathematician, who was obsessed with invention of eternal engine made first roulette by accident. This happened at the end of 17th century in France. Despite the fact that roulette wasn't continuously spinning, it became very popular.
It is worth mentioning that official version doesn't contradict other theories. There is a belief that Pascal took the principles from English, Italian, French, Chinese and Greek games where wheel is used. That is why it is possible that rules of abovementioned "hoka" and "boule”were used.
Initially, Pascal's roulette didn't have zero sector unlike roulette American game. It was created by Louis and Francois Blanc, brothers, who improved this "mathematical invention". Representatives of Catholic church in those days were against gambling games, they gave mystical shade to this game, told that total amount of numbers on the wheel is 666. No matter what, this type of roulette is called today European roulette.
American roulette – regeneration of a game
Roulette "migrated" to America in eighties of 18th century. Because of revolution in France nobility moved to colonies of the New World. Those who ran away, representatives of swell society were first to play this game in America. Initially new game got fans in New Orleans, American gambling capital in those times. Roulette board, simple rules and prizes, which depend on Dame Fortune – special features, which attracted gamblers.
American gambling establishments turned out to be more pragmatic than European. Owners of saloons offered their own variant of the game. The number of "coloured" sectors reduced to 28. There were three special pockets advantageous for casino. Double zero and American eagle were added to traditional zero. This let gambling establishments to gain advantage over players and increase casino profit.
The roulette game American business reached its full flowering in the middle of 20th century. Lucky gamblers, who were working in one-horse towns, became rich in several days. Adventurers liked American roulette very much. They were happy to place earned money on bet. By the end of 19th century this game became popular in the western part of United States.
Throughout history of gambling games development there were three prohibitions against them in America. Though these periods were relatively small and were eventually ended by legalization. As a result, in the first half of 20th century American roulette appeared in gambling establishments in America and also become popular in Europe. Nowadays this game is an integral part of entertainment in few hundreds casinos is the USA, Canada, South America, Macau, Europe, eastern, island countries.
American roulette has gradually gained "European" format. Thirty-six numbers were again on the wheel, and American Eagle disappeared. There are no more than ten wheels, with Eagle symbols today. They are considered to be antique and are estimated to cost dozens of dollars. Double zero "got accustomed" and became a special feature of American roulette wheel, as we know it today.
Modern American roulette – description of rules, the game aims
Modern American roulette has preserved the simplicity of the rules and the major aim of the game. Player's task is to guess on which sector will ball land. Sectors are divided into two categories: outer and inner.
Inside bets – its types, value coefficients
Inside bets is a group which is distinct from others by the higher complexity of predicting the results of the game, but it can also bring you big prizes. According to the rules of the game you can place here several types of bets:
- Straight – bet on the number which can present you with the biggest prize. Payout coefficient is 35 to 1 here. Player, who placed dollar and guessed the number will get 35 dollars. Roulette table bets can be placed on any "number" segment, including 0 and 00.
- Split – a bet on two numbers. Chip is placed on an intersecting line. Coefficients of payouts is 17 to 1.
- Street – a bet on three numbers. Dealer places chip on the separating vertical line, which has three numerical sections. Payout is 11 to 1. You can choose here combinations with zero and double zero.
- Corner – the bet on four numbers. Croupier places chip in the center of four numbers. It is possible to choose zero. The prize size will exceed the rate in 8 times.
Line Bet/Double Split – a bet on 6 numbers. Coefficient of payouts is 5 to 1.
Finally, the special type of roulette wheel betting – bet on five numbers, which exists only in American roulette. In this case croupier places chip in the left corner of the line, between zero, double zero and first intersecting line with 1-3 numbers. The amount of payout here is six to one.
Types of outside bets
Outside bets in American roulette differ from others in smaller payouts, but here you have more chances to guess the results of spins of online roulette wheel:
Wagers on luck. This notion unites three varieties of combinations: red/black, even/odd, and also the choice of field with big numbers 1-18/19-36. Special sectors of zero and double zero can't be in combination. When they fall out player loses. The coefficient of payouts is one to one.
Column/Dozen - two types of bets, which allow to choose twelve numbers. Chip is placed on certain fields. Payout is 2 to 1. Zero and double zero sectors can't be in such combination, they are considered to be losing numbers.
Alongside with traditional rules, some casinos have additional function called Surrender. Principle of its work is borrowed from French roulette. Player, who placed bets on luck, gets 50% payout when two zero sectors fall out on roulette table with wheel. Don't forget that this rule works only in some casinos. When you are planning your game, you should specify the rules with croupier.
Main functions of the croupier
Croupier takes part in the game in land-based casinos. He is an employee of gambling establishment, who performs special functions. Dealer accepts and fixes bets, places chips of various colours (it allows players to differentiate them) on needed sectors during roulette game free American. Bets can be placed even when croupier has already spun the wheel. Player cannot place bets any more when croupier announced that no more bets allowed. Special dolly marker is placed on a winning number of wheel. While it is one the table, player cannot put or take away chips from the layout. Bets and payouts are counted by croupier himself, he clears the layout and announces the prizes. Dealer can take away the marker and offer to place new bets only when he pays all winning bets. Such organization of the game reduces any fraud actions to zero.
Popular strategy of a game
Throughout centuries, gamblers are trying to overgame American roulette. What is like to win American roulette? Some people believe that mathematical calculations will help them to win, other people examine techniques, which are based on the principle of theory of probability. It is rather problematic to objectively estimate the effectiveness of such strategies. However, it is possible to claim that professional game, based on usage of specific techniques bring more prizes. Especially, in comparison with bets placed on luck, there are only few exceptions in short-term game.
Nowadays there are about one hundred of various strategies, used to get prizes in American roulette. The simplest and the most available one is Martingale system. It is created for games "on luck" in roulette American game and presupposes doubling of bet after each unsuccessful spin, in other words, progression of bet looks like this: 1-2-4-8-16-32-.... It is supposed that one colour cannot fall out endlessly, as a result player will get his prize after all. The main disadvantage here is high requirements to financial investments. Practice shows that colour may not drop out for 30 times. In such cases player's budget might not survive.
The similar principle has D'Alembert system of the game. Rules of this strategy presuppose change of bet depending on the result of each spin: increase of bet after unsuccessful spin, decrease of bet after successful one.
Fibonacci's system is another widespread strategy, where bets are placed on the basis of well-known sequence. Dustin's system involves analysis and calculation of winning numbers. According to this technique, it is necessary to divide the wheel into 5 sectors, 7 numbers in each. Then trace the results and exclude groups of winning numbers. Bet is placed on the single number left.
In addition to these strategies it is possible to note other popular game techniques in American roulette:
- Garcia's method;
- Jung's method;
- Grill's method;
"Technical" predicting of winning sector in American roulette
It should be noted that there are a lot of attempts to invent special "equipment" to predict the game results.
In 1961 mathematician Claude Shannon in a cooperation with Edward Thorp created "computer", which calculated where will ball land. This machine fixed time and speed of spin and on the basis of results determined the most probable sector.
In the early nineties Gonzalo Garcia was trying to analyse the regularity of dropped out number on the basis of indicators of various spins. We should note that he managed to overgame casino in Madrid, Spain and win 600 000 euros in one day. The legal claim from casino, which said he was fraud was rejected, casino was just recommended to improve the quality of equipment.
In 2004 there was information about usage of special scanner on smartphone by group of players. It was told that this device could predict the results of spins on roulette wheel without sticking to the American roulette rules. However, casino didn't manage to prove technical violation of equipment's work.
American roulette in movies
American roulette is also popular outside casino. Directors of famous movies included gambling games into the plot aiming to increase the popularity. The most famous are:
- Casablanca, 1942;
- Danger man, 1964;
- Mission: impossible (episode "Odds on evil"), 1966;
- Support your local gunfighter, 1971;
- Sting, 1973.
Plots with elements of gambling games also used Disney Pixar company, Indian and European companies. As a rule, characters of movies hit jackpot by placing minimal bet or even using casino's money. In any case, waiting for the results of the game can make audience nervous.
The biggest prizes and most glorious victories in the history of American roulette
It should be noted that there were real great victories in the history. Part of them was won with the help of non-legal or even fraud actions. One of the most sensational events of this format were victories of Joseph Jagger in 1873. Together with six partners this man carefully examined the equipment of casino and managed to find the table, on which the roulette wheel of fortune was placed with a considerable inclination. This group of players used this and "won" over 300000 dollars.
Other fascinating victories
Charles Wells from London in 1891 won over one million of francs. Though this man had a reputation of fraud, there were no evidences that he did it in that case, only roulette wheel strategy.
Polish player Pavel Piskorky, who got 175000 dollars in 1992. This amount of money he inserted into tax declaration. It is hard to say whether it's true. There is information according to which casinos payed such amounts at that times.
Spanish mathematician Gonzalo Garcia in the nineties of twentieth century. As it was already mentioned before, he used specific calculations as a strategy of a game in American roulette. As a result, he won two million dollars in two years. After his victory, he was forbidden to play in casinos. Despite this fact, he still has a title of one of most successful slots American roulette players.
Ashley Revel from Britain. He gained a reputation of the luckiest player. In 2004 he sold all that he had and placed that money on "red" He won.
Derren Brown, one more British resident. He thought that it is possible to predict the place, where ball will land with the help of physical laws. He confirmed this theory, placed on number three, three seconds after wheel began spinning. It was broadcasted live under the conditions of bet. It isn't known for sure whether Brown managed to be so successful in the future.
Taking into consideration the popularity of American roulette we can surely predict that there will be a lot of people who will be trying to overgame famous wheel of fortune. Nowadays people mostly believe that victory in such simple, complex and mysterious game at the same time depends only on the luck.American roulette (games).